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(Abbreviated as CBD) is one of the cannabinoids identified in hemp.
It is one of at least 113 cannabinoids identified in hemp plants, accounting for up to 40% of the plant’s extract. As of 2018 in the United States, cannabidiol has not been approved by the FDA as a prescription drug for medical uses, except for two rare forms of childhood epilepsy. The first federally approved CBD Epilepsy Drug has just been released in 2018 as well (pending approval Epidiolex – FDA) and will be released at an estimated $32,500 annually.
Cannabidiol can be ingested in multiple different ways, including by inhalation of smoke or vapor, tinctures, eating, drinking, topically on skin and many more. There are many options. It may be supplied as an oil containing only CBD as the active ingredient (no added THC or terpenes), a full-plant CBD-dominant hemp extract oil, dried hemp flower, concentrate wax dabs, hemp tea, and many forms of edible candies, caramels and other delicious and healthy treats for humans and pets.
CBD has been found to interact with a variety of different biological targets, including cannabinoid receptors and other neurotransmitter receptors in your brain. This is all part of your endocannabinoid system. A system created to interact with cannabinoids like CBD (Cannabidiol) The mechanism of action of CBD in terms of its psychoactive and therapeutic effects is not fully clear, although it is finally being thoroughly researched.
What Are The Benefits Of CBD?
- Relieves Pain
- Extreme Anti-inflammatory Properties
- Reduces Anxiety
- Stress Relief
- Helps Insomnia
- Helps to Fight Cancer (CBD has been studied for its use as an anti-cancer agent)
- Relieves Nausea And Regain Appetite (Chrons Disease & Acid Reflux)
- Treat Seizures and Other Neurological Disorders
- Lowers Incidence of Diabetes
- Promotes Cardiovascular Health
- Help Promote Immune System Health
- Reduces Acne
- Helps With PTSD
- Non Psychoactive
- Promotes A Quick Metabolism
- Body relaxation
- Body aches
- Muscle pain,
- Bone and joint pains (arthritis)
- An overall sense of relief when applied to the affected localized areas
- Sports Injuries / Recovery
- Works Great For Tattoos
- Migraines / Headaches
- Chronic pain
- Multiple sclerosis
- Nerve pain/sciatica
- Muscle spasms
- Menstrual cramps
- Localized joint pain, inflammation muscle soreness, sprains and other mild injuries.
- Fungal infections
- Dry/Itchy Skin
- Promotes faster healing of wounds, cuts, scrapes and bruises.
These Benefits Are Continuously Proven
Side effectsof CBD include sleepiness, decreased appetite, diarrhea, fatigue, weakness, sleeping problems, and others.
It does not have intoxicating effects like those caused by THC, and may have an opposing effect on disordered thinking and anxiety produced by THC. In other cases the CBD may amplify the effects of the THC.
Use caution and Do Not operate a vehicle until you understand how you are affected by cannabidiol.
Hemp derived CBD is legal in the US to (Hemp Farm Bill 2014), UK, Canada and most of Europe; as well as other countries. Cannabis Derived CBD is only legal in places where marajuana is legal. CBD does not have intoxicating effects like those caused by tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in cannabis plants.
CBD Isolate does not show up in drug tests
Full Spectrum CBD may show up in certain drug tests.
CBD Hemp has less than .3% Delta 9 THC which is the legal limit of THC and if you are consuming in moderation you will not fail a drug test, but we do not make any guarantees. See our “Cannabidiol” page on our site to learn more. Quality and safety is very important so each and every batch of CBD Hemp is tested and approved by the Department of Agriculture prior to distribution.
It is highly advised to act responsibly and treat this like a cannabis product. CBDShopNY.com is not responsible for anyone confiscating this product or getting arrested or fined for having this legal product in your possession because of the misconception of what it actually is. Buy and consume at your own risk.
Notice To Law Enforcement Authorities: What is contained on this page might look like marijuana, but it is actually legal industrial hemp flower. This historic legislation establishes the legality of industrial hemp produced in state pilot agricultural programs. Congress provides the requisite definition for allowable amounts of THC. industrial hemp’ means the plant Cannabis sativa L. and any part of such plant, whether growing or not, with a delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol concentration of not more than 0.3 percent on a dry weight basis”. An important legal distinction also appears in the first sentence of this bill, stating: “Notwithstanding the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 801 et seq.), the Safe and Drug-Free Schools and Communities Act (20 U.S.C. 7101 et seq.), chapter 81 of title 41, United States Code, or any other Federal law”. The term “notwithstanding” was widely used by the 114th Congress as a way to supersede previous laws that may apply, without going through the process of overturning them. This confirms that hemp cannot be considered “marijuana” under the CSA.
Consolidated Appropriations Act, Sec. 763 (2016)
This legislation was the omnibus federal budget for FY2016. According to 7 U.S.C. §5940, the term “industrial hemp” means the plant Cannabis sativa L. and any part of such plant, whether growing or not, with a Delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta-9 THC) concentration of not more than 0.3% on a dry weight basis. Only the Delta-9 THC level is relevant, not THC-A., this hemp flower has a Delta-9 THC level on a dry weight basis equal to 0%, well below the 0.3% maximum level and, therefore, this flower is hemp, not marijuana, and is perfectly legal to possess and sell. This right applies in any state pursuant to the Full Faith and Credit Clause, Article VI, Section 1 of the Constitution, the Supremacy Clause, Article VI, Section 2 of the Constitution, and the Equal Protection Clause, Section 1 of the Fourteenth Amendment.
These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.
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‘The New Avocado Toast’
The New York Times CBD Article Oct. 27, 2018
Why Is CBD Everywhere?
Cannabidiol is being touted as a magical elixir, a cure-all now available in bath bombs, dog treats and even pharmaceuticals. But maybe it’s just a fix for our anxious times.
By Alex Williams
- Oct. 27, 2018
It’s hard to say the precise moment when CBD, the voguish cannabis derivative, went from being a fidget spinner alternative for stoners to a mainstream panacea.
Maybe it was in January, when Mandy Moore, hours before the Golden Globes, told Coveteur that she was experimenting with CBD oil to relieve the pain from wearing high heels. “It could be a really exciting evening,” she said. “I could be floating this year.”
Maybe it was in July, when Willie Nelson introduced a line of CBD-infused coffee beans called Willie’s Remedy. “It’s two of my favorites, together in the perfect combination,” he said in a statement.
Or maybe it was earlier this month, when Dr. Sanjay Gupta gave a qualified endorsement of CBD on “The Dr. Oz Show.”“I think there is a legitimate medicine here,” he said. “We’re talking about something that could really help people.”
STYLEHere’s how CBD became one of the buzziest skin care ingredientsof the year.
So the question now becomes: Is this the dawning of a new miracle elixir, or does all the hype mean we have already reached Peak CBD?
Either way, it would be hard to script a more of-the-moment salve for a nation on edge. With its proponents claiming that CBD treats ailments as diverse as inflammation, pain, acne, anxiety, insomnia, depression, post-traumatic stress and even cancer, it’s easy to wonder if this all natural, non-psychotropic and widely available cousin of marijuana represents a cure for the 21st century itself.
The ice caps are melting, the Dow teeters, and a divided country seems headed for divorce court. Is it any wonder, then, that everyone seems to be reaching for the tincture?
“Right now, CBD is the chemical equivalent to Bitcoin in 2016,” said Jason DeLand, a New York advertising executive and a board member of Dosist, a cannabis company in Santa Monica, Calif., that makes disposable vape pens with CBD. “It’s hot, everywhere and yet almost nobody understands it.”
Cannabis for Non-Stoners
With CBD popping up in nearly everything — bath bombs, ice cream, dog treats — it is hard to overstate the speed at which CBD has moved from the Burning Man margins to the cultural center.
A year ago, it was easy to be blissfully unaware of CBD. Now, to measure the hype, it’s as if everyone suddenly discovered yoga. Or penicillin. Or maybe oxygen.
Even so, you ask, what is CBD? Plenty of people still have no idea. CBD is short for cannabidiol, an abundant chemical in the cannabis plant. Unlike its more famous cannabinoid cousin, THC (tetrahydrocannabinol), CBD does not make you stoned.
Which is not to say that you feel utterly normal when you take it.
CBD drops by a New York start-up called Plant People. The product purports to relieve stress, reduce pain and improve cognition. CBD drops by a New York start-up called Plant People. The product purports to relieve stress, reduce pain and improve cognition. CreditJules Davies
Users speak of a “body” high, as opposed to a mind-altering one. “Physically, it’s like taking a warm bath, melting the tension away,” said Gabe Kennedy, 27, a founder of Plant People, a start-up in New York that sells CBD capsules and oils. “It is balancing; a leveling, smoothing sensation in the body mostly, and an evenness of attention in the mind.”
TRAVELAs states continue to legalize, you can expect to see cannabis-based edibleson the menu during your next hotel resturant visit.
Comparing it to the feeling after an intense meditation or yoga session, Mr. Kennedy added that the CBD glow has “synergistic downstream effects” in terms of social connections. “Around others, I find myself more present and attentive, more creative and open.”
Moreover, you are unlikely to find yourself microwaving frozen burritosat midnight after taking CBD, unlike with pot.
Such quasi-religious talk is common among CBD’s disciples.
“I’m a 30 y.o. male who has not experienced a single anxiety free day in my adult life,” wrote one user on a CBD forum on Reddit earlier this month. “About 3 weeks ago I started taking CBD-oil 10 percent and I can’t even describe how amazing I feel. For the first time in 15+ years I feel happy and look forward to living a long life.”
Such testimonials make CBD seem like a perfect cure for our times. Every cultural era, after all, has its defining psychological malady. This also means that every era has its signature drug.
The jittery postwar era, with its backyard bomb shelters and suburban fears about keeping up with the Joneses, gave rise to a boom in sedatives, as seen in the era’s pop songs (“Mother’s Little Helper,”by the Rolling Stones) and best sellers (“Valley of the Dolls,” by Jacqueline Susann).
The recessionary 1990s gave rise to Generation X angst, Kurt Cobain dirges and a cultural obsession with newfangled antidepressants (see Elizabeth Wurtzel’s “Prozac Nation: Young and Depressed in America”).
The defining sociological condition today, especially among millennials, is arguably anxiety: anxiety about our political dysfunction, anxiety about terrorism, anxiety about climate change, anxiety about student loan debt, even anxiety about artificial intelligence taking away all the good jobs.
The anxiety feels even more acute since the wired generation feels continuously bombarded by new reasons to freak out, thanks to their smart devices.
“You are inundated with terrible news, and you have no choice to opt in or out,” said Verena von Pfetten, 35, the former digital director for Lucky magazine who is a founder of Gossamer, a high-style magazine targeted to cannabis-loving tastemakers. “You open your computer, check your phone, there are news alerts.”
What a convenient time for Mother Nature to bestow a perma-chillax cure that seems to tie together so many cultural threads at once: our obsession with self-care and wellness, the mainstreaming of alternative therapies and the relentless march of legalized marijuana.
“That seems like a gift in these times,” Ms. von Pfetten said.
‘The New Avocado Toast’
The tsunami of CBD-infused products has hit so suddenly, and with such force, that marketers have strained to find a fitting analogy. Chris Burggraeve, a former Coca-Cola and Ab InBev executive, called it the “new avocado toast,” in an interview with Business Insider.
Then again, avocado toast seems so five years ago.
Fad chasers looking for the next-next big thing may want to check out the CBD-infused ricotta-and-honey toastat Chillhouse, the Instagram-ready coffee shop, nail salon and massage studio on the Lower East Side of Manhattan. And then retreat to Inscape NYC, a meditation and relaxation studio in Chelsea, to unwind with a stress-busting CBD Saturdaysession.
It would be false to suggest CBD is nothing more than an obsession for reiki-adjacent bicoastal millennials. According to the AARP website, CBD has become a popular treatment for pain and arthritis among baby boomers, some of whom may have been out of the cannabis game since they rolled their last doobie at a Foghat concert in 1975.
Even so, CBD seems to have found its natural target audience among the vegan-curious creative professionals who cluster in trendy hotels like the James New York-Nomad hotel, which offers a room-service CBD tasting menu featuring CBD-infused meatballs and sriracha-mayo House Tots. Or the Standard hotel outposts in Miami and New York, which sell $50 blood orange-flavored gumdrops by the upscale CBD brand Lord Jonesin its minibars.
Blood orange and CBD-infused gumdrops by an upscale brand called Lord Jones, which is sold at trendy hotels.
Such sumptuously packaged, premium-priced CBD products appeal to trend-conscious consumers in part because they promise a degree of indulgence — without the indulgence.
Despite its cannabis origins, CBD is not marketed as a recreational drug, but almost as its opposite: as a corrective to the ill effects of alcohol and even marijuana itself, which makes it catnip for hard-charging professionals who need to be fresh for a 7 a.m. breakfast meeting.
A detox drink under development called Sober Up, for example, will contain CBD and is supposed to support liver health and help prevent hangovers.
Fewer hangovers is also the sales pitch at Adriaen Block, a bar in the Astoria neighborhood of Queens that whips up CBD-infused negronis and old-fashioned cocktails. “You can maintain a conversation and know what you are saying,” said Zsolt Csonka, who owns the bar and mixes drinks there. “After two or three drinks, you’ll be able to go to the gym the next day.
When added to dishes like sesame shrimp toast at PopCultivate, a series of cannabis-centric pop-up dinners in Los Angeles, CBD (which is flavorless) can function as a social lubricant, just like a wine pairing, but without, according to proponents, the hangover.
“You become more engaged with your neighbors, talk more freely, and meet more people you dine with,” said Chris Yang, the molecular biologist turned chef behind the series.
But nowhere does the fervor for CBD seem greater than in health and beauty, where cannabidiol is often packaged with buzzy terms like “single origin,” “small batch” and “plant based.”
Among beauty products alone, CBD has already achieved cliché status, popping up in blemish creams, sleeping masks, shampoos, hair conditioners, eye serums, anti-acne lotions, mascaras, massage oils, soaps, lip balms, bath bombs, anti-wrinkle serums, muscle rubs and a Sephora aisle’s worth of moisturizers, face lotions and body creams. Even the bedroom is not safe from the CBD invasion, to judge by the spate of CBD sexual lubricantson shelves.
“I replaced my entire beauty routine with only CBD products,” read a recent headline in Glamour magazine.
This earthy, artisanal aura plays well with devotees of, say, Goop, who are already conditioned, after years of aromatherapy, cryotherapy and homeopathy, to accept a natural wellness mantra over anything on offer by Big Pharma and the medical industrial complex.
As an alternative health regimen, CBD holds particular appeal to women, said Gretchen Lidicker, the health editor of Mindbodygreen, a wellness website based in New York, and the author of “CBD Oil Everyday Secrets.” Noting the preponderance of female-run CBD businesses, Ms. Lidicker, 26, said that it is “no surprise that women are leading the CBD movement.”
“Women have long felt ignored and dehumanized by the medical and health care industries,” she said. “They experience longer wait times for treatment. Their pain and suffering are more likely to be dismissed as anxiety or hysteria. And the male body has typically been the model for medical research.”
Such concerns seem to have helped fuel the CBD movement. In an era marked by a loss of faith traditional institutions (governments, banks, hospitals), CBD has flourished, perhaps because it seems new, mysterious and untainted by the mainstream.
It may or may not be a coincidence that one of the best-known CBD retailers in New York, the Alchemist’s Kitchen in the East Village, serves up cannabidiol tinctures and gel caps, alongside workshops on astrocartography, lucid dreaming and full-moon ancestral healing.
And devotees swear it works. “It really helps with pain, inflammation and the general anxiety that grips me 24 hour a day,” said Anna Duckworth, 34, the editor of Miss Grass, a website based in Venice, Calif., that W magazine called the “Goop of cannabis.”
“There are millions and millions of people who are just fed up and don’t want to take these drugs that make them feel bad,” she said, “and want to go a more nontoxic, natural route.”
Snake Oil or Wonder Drug?
There’s one problem with that approach. When people turn to CBD-infused coconut lattes to cure acne and erectile dysfunction, it is not easy to separate hype from science.
Skeptics who assume CBD is just 21st-century snake oil, however, may be surprised to learn that the substance is being studied as a potential treatment for maladies as diverse as schizophrenia, insomnia and cancer.
“CBD is the most promising drug that has come out for neuropsychiatric diseases in the last 50 years,” said Dr. Esther Blessing, an assistant professor at New York University School of Medicine, who is coordinating a study of CBD as atreatment for post-traumatic stress disorder and alcohol use disorder. “The reason it is so promising is that it has a unique combination of safety and effectiveness across of very broad range of conditions.”
The National Institutes of Health databaselists about 150 of studies involving CBD as a treatment for conditions as varied as infantile spasms and Parkinson’s disease.
And the research has led to medical treatments. In June, the Food and Drug Administration approved a cannabidiol-based drug called Epidiolexas a treatment for severe forms of epilepsy, representing the first government-sanctioned medical use for CBD.
Preliminary research also indicates that CBD may be effective as an antipsychotic in reducing the symptoms of schizophrenia, with fewer side effects compared with current antipsychotic drugs, Dr. Blessing said.
A disposable CBD vape pen by Dosist, a cannabis company in Santa Monica, Calif
CBD has also shown promise to reduce cravings among people addicted to opioids, according to a study published in Neurotherapeutics in 2015. It may fight cancer, too. The authors of a review published in the British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology in 2012 wrote: “evidence is emerging to suggest that CBD is a potent inhibitor of both cancer growth and spread.”
That’s not to say that a CBD-laced gummy or two should be considered medicine.
“Most of the products where people are putting CBD in coffee or food, there’s no solid evidence that they contain enough CBD to do anything,” Dr. Blessing said. “A CBD coffee may only have five milligrams in it. In order to treat anxiety, we know you need around 300 milligrams.”
Don’t go chugging a shot of CBD oil just yet, though. Dr. Blessing said that much of the research is in its infancy, and the purity and dosage of some CBD consumer products may not reliable. And, she noted, CBD can have negative interactions with many medications, so potential users should talk to their doctors before taking it.”
There are legal hazards as well. As with all cannabis products, the federal government categorizes CBD products other than Epidiolex as a Schedule 1 drug (Until The 2018 Farm Bill December 2018), like heroin, according to the Drug Enforcement Administration. And cannabis remains illegal under federal law, even in states that have legalized marijuana for medical or recreational use.
Even so, the D.E.A.’s mission is to go after large-scale drug traffickers, not individual users, said Barbara Carreno, an agency spokeswoman. “We’re not swatting joints out of hands in Hilo, Hawaii, and we’re not going to focus on somebody who is buying lotion or ice cream that has CBD in it.”
Although there have been scattered raids of CBD retailers around the country, several states, including Alabama, Texas, Florida and Oklahoma, have passed laws approving specific CBD products to treat specific ailments. And CBD shops have cropped up nationwide, in Los Angeles, Oklahoma City and Austin, Tex., to name just a few cities.
In New York City, for example, CBD tinctures and other products can be bought at specialty shops, health food stores, yoga studios, flea markets, boutiques and even some corner delis. (The availability of CBD is perhaps not surprising, given Mayor Bill de Blasio’s continued efforts to reduce the penalties for low-level marijuana violations.)
Aside from a federal crackdown, the only thing that may eventually kill CBD’s momentum is hype itself, said Mr. DeLand of Dosist.
The frothy claims about CBD “sets up some false expectations that the molecule will never be able to live up to,” Mr. DeLand said. Not only are questionable claims an invitation for government regulation, but they risk making even legitimate applications seem dubious, he said.
“In isolation, CBD obviously does have some benefits, but it’s certainly not a catchall for all the world’s health problems,” he said. “We are at the tip of the iceberg on what its therapeutic applications are, and how to make those applications repeatable.”
“The future of this industry,” Mr. DeLand added, “is going to be based on fact, not fiction.”
Hemp is an annual, dioecious, flowering herb. The leaves are palmately compound or digitate, with serrate leaflets. The first pair of leaves usually have a single leaflet, the number gradually increasing up to a maximum of about thirteen leaflets per leaf (usually seven or nine), depending on variety and growing conditions. At the top of a flowering plant, this number again diminishes to a single leaflet per leaf. The lower leaf pairs usually occur in an opposite leaf arrangement and the upper leaf pairs in an alternate arrangement on the main stem of a mature plant.
The leaves have a peculiar and diagnostic venation pattern that enables persons poorly familiar with the plant to distinguish a cannabis leaf from unrelated species that have confusingly similar leaves (see illustration). As is common in serrated leaves, each serration has a central vein extending to its tip. However, the serration vein originates from lower down the central vein of the leaflet, typically opposite to the position of, not the first notch down, but the next notch. This means that on its way from the midrib of the leaflet to the point of the serration, the vein serving the tip of the serration passes close by the intervening notch. Sometimes the vein will actually pass tangent to the notch, but often it will pass by at a small distance, and when that happens a spur vein (occasionally a pair of such spur veins) branches off and joins the leaf margin at the deepest point of the notch. This venation pattern varies slightly among varieties, but in general it enables one to tell Cannabis leaves from superficially similar leaves without difficulty and without special equipment. Tiny samples of Cannabis plants also can be identified with precision by microscopic examination of leaf cells and similar features, but that requires special expertise and equipment.
What is a Cannabinoid?
Synthetic cannabinoids encompass a variety of distinct chemical classes: the classical cannabinoids structurally related to THC, the nonclassical cannabinoids (cannabimimetics) including the aminoalkylindoles, 1,5-diarylpyrazoles, quinolines, and arylsulfonamides as well as eicosanoidsrelated to endocannabinoids.
‘Indica vs. Sativa vs. Hybrid’
Some Key Factors
What’s the Difference?
Trying to choose between an indica or sativa? We can help!
Cannabis strains are typically broken up into one of three distinct groups: indica, sativa, and hybrid. Although all these strains are considered marijuana, these classifications help users determine the types of effects, smells, and even flavors they should expect from a strain.
First we will look at some of the differences between indicas and sativas, before going into detail about hybrid cannabis strains.
Origin of Cannabis Strains
When speaking of the original locations for indica and sativa strains, we must discuss landraces. These original landraces (a region’s native, naturally-occurring cannabis strain) are locally adapted strains optimized through natural evolution to grow in their specific microclimates.
Indica strains are generally agreed to have originated near Central Asia and spread to regions in India, Nepal, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Morocco, and Turkey. Indica landraces like Afghani Kush, Hindu Kush, Mazar I Sharif generally thrived between 30° and 50° latitudes by adapting to these local growing conditions.
Growing in warmer weather, sativa landraces, like Durban Poison, Panama Red, and Acapulco Gold, originated in the countries located on or near the equator, such as Colombia, Mexico, Thailand, and Southeast Asia. Today, sativas still grow wild throughout many humid and tropical areas of the world.
These naturally-growing landraces formed the genetic backbone for modern cannabis strains. By crossbreeding these landraces, as well as the strains that were produced by this breeding, the immense variety of cannabis strains we have now was made possible.
Morphology and Growth
Visually, it is often possible to identify an indica or sativa plant by focusing on certain characteristics.
Indica strains tend to grow short and and bushy – usually under 6 feet tall. Sativas, on the other hand, can reach heights up to 20 feet when grown outdoors. Sativa branches are spread out and grow upwards, while their leaves are long and narrow, while the leaves of an indica plant are thicker and broader.
Because they grow smaller, indica strains are well suited for cultivating indoors. Indica plants typically produce less of a yield than sativa plants. However, this lower yield is offset by an indica’s shorter growing cycle.
Sativa plants have much longer vegetation periods than indica strains, taking anywhere from 10 to 16 weeks to fully mature during the flowering period. This longer vegetation period often results in a much higher yield.
On a chemical level, indica and sativa strains are different in the make-up of their cannabinoid content, as well as in the balance of other compounds, such as terpenes.
There are over 100 cannabinoids that have been identified in the cannabis plant, including tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol(CBD), the primary cannabinoids found in marijuana.
Pure sativa strains usually produce a high THC content and low CBD content. Landrace indica strains, on the other hand, tend have a lower THC content, and a somewhat higher CBD content. However, thanks to crossbreeding, both indica and sativa strains can be found with varying THC:CBDcannabinoid concentrations.
After THC, CBD is the second most prevalent cannabinoid found in cannabis. CBD is noted for the way THC interacts with the body, controlling the effects of THC and perhaps modulating the strain’s particular high.
At least 120 different terpenes have also been found in cannabis. The concentration and balance of these terpenes can largely influence the flavor and scent of a particular strain, and may even affect its high.
Indica strains are known for having flavor profiles ranging from sweet musk and rich earth to dark fruit, like berry and grape, while sativa strains are known for citrus, pine, and even tropical profiles.
Although each cannabis strain will have nuanced effects on the body and mind, indica and sativa classifications can help determine how a strain’s personality will manifest itself.
Effects from indica strains exist predominantly in the body, though the hundreds of hybrids available differ widely in their exact effect profiles.
Indica strains can be
Many consumers turn to indica-dominant strains after strenuous activity to better manage their recovery or other chronic issues. Indicas are also ideal for nights spent at home watching a movie or binge watching TV as a way to disconnect. This incredible relaxation is good for unwinding from a long day or a busy week. Some of the heavier-feeling indicas are perfect for right before bed, helping you to clear your mind and physically melt into sleep.
Sativa strains, on the other hand, tend to manifest their effects in the mind, for a more cerebral high.
Sativa strains can be:
The euphoric response produced by sativa strains can encourage deep conversation and enhance creativity, which is why it’s often most suited for daytime use or social situations. Because of its uplifting properties, sativa strains of medical marijuana are often used by those struggling with mood issues.
A Note About Hybrids…
Technically speaking, all cannabis strains – except for native landraces – are hybrids, combining the effects of parent genetics into a single strain.
For example, the popular strain Girl Scout Cookies reportedly pulls its genetics from the pure sativa Durban Poison and a hybrid strain called OG Kush, which is in turn a likely crossbreeding of Chemdawg and a Hindu Kush landrace. Just as Girl Scout Cookies is a product of breeding, the strain itself has been used as a parent to create dozens of new strains now on dispensary shelves.
Tracing the genetics of these hybrid strains can become confusing, as popular strain resources now list nearly two thousand different strain names, each with its own unique genetic family tree. The more removed these hybrids are from the original landraces, the more strains are involved in creating its genetics.
Strains will take on the characteristics of its parent strains, including their scent and flavor profiles. This ability to breed strains together creates an almost endless combination of terpene and cannabinoid compositions. This breeding also allows cultivators to create a myriad of effects. These effects will manifest as either indica-dominant, sativa-dominant, or balanced hybrids.
When shopping for a hybrid strain at your local dispensary, your budtender should be able to tell you if it leans sativa or indica-dominant or if it is a 50/50 hybrid with balanced influence from both sativa and indica genetics. Knowing a strain’s parent genetics and the ratio of its indica or sativa-dominance can help new and experienced users alike to find the strain that best fits their individual preferences.
… and Phenotypes
When we talk about a strain’s genetics, that is its genotype or the DNA that determines its blueprint for growth. A phenotype, however, is an organism’s observable characteristics – an expression of both its genetics and environmental influences.
A phenotype is the actual plant that grows and any variations that may exist due to external fluctuations. This physical expression of a plant’s genes is responsible for any variations that may occur within a strain when it is grown. Whether a certain harvest of your favorite strains has an interesting smell or exhibits stronger indica or sativa effects than expected, it may be due to that particular phenotype and the environment in which it was grown.
(MEDICAL MARIJUANA, INC. NEWS)
Hemp, or industrial hemp (from Old English hænep), typically found in the northern hemisphere, is a variety of the Cannabis sativa plant species that is grown specifically for the industrial uses of its derived products. It is one of the fastest growing plants and was one of the first plants to be spun into usable fiber 10,000 years ago. It can be refined into a variety of commercial items including paper, textiles, clothing, biodegradable plastics, paint, insulation, biofuel, food, and animal feed.
Although cannabis as a drug and industrial hemp both derive from the species Cannabis sativa and contain the psychoactive component tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), they are distinct strains with unique phytochemical compositions and uses. Hemp has lower concentrations of THC and higher concentrations of cannabidiol (CBD), which decreases or eliminates its psychoactive effects. The legality of industrial hemp varies widely between countries. Some governments regulate the concentration of THC and permit only hemp that is bred with an especially low THC content.
Hemp is usually planted between March and May in the northern hemisphere, between September and November in the southern hemisphere. It matures in about three to four months.
Millennia of selective breeding have resulted in varieties that display a wide range of traits; e.g. suited for a particular environments/latitudes, producing different ratios and compositions of terpenoids and cannabinoids (CBD, THC, CBG, CBC, CBN…etc.), fibre quality, oil/seed yield etc. Hemp grown for fiber is planted closely, resulting in tall, slender plants with long fibers.
Use of industrial hemp plant and its cultivation was commonplace until the 1900s, when it was associated with its genetic sibling aka Drug-Type Cannabis species (which contain higher levels of psychoactive THC). Influential groups misconstrued hemp as a dangerous ‘drug’, even though it is not a ‘drug’ and it has the potential to be a sustainable & profitable alternative crop.
In the United States, the public’s perception of hemp as marijuana has blocked hemp from becoming a useful crop and product,” in spite of its vital importance prior to World War II. Ideally, according to Britain’s Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, the herb should be desiccated and harvested towards the end of flowering. This early cropping reduces the seed yield but improves the fiber yield and quality. In these strains of industrial hemp* the tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content would have been very low.
The seeds are sown from mid-April to mid-May with grain drills to 4–6 cm sowing depth. Hemp needs less fertilizer than corn does. A total of 60–150 kg of nitrogen, 40–140 kg phosphorus (P2O5) and 75–200 kg of potassium  per acre for hemp fiber made before sowing and again later, maybe three to four weeks. When practiced, especially in France double use of fiber and seed fertilization with nitrogen doses up to 100 kg / ha rather low. Organic fertilizers such as manure can utilize industrial hemp well. Neither weeds nor crop protection measures are necessary.
In contrast to cannabis for medical use, varieties grown for fiber and seed have less than 0.3% THC and are unsuitable for producing hashish and marijuana. Present in industrial hemp, cannabidiol is a major constituent among some 560 compounds found in hemp.
Cannabis sativa L. subsp. sativa var. sativa is the variety grown for industrial use, while C. sativa subsp. indica generally has poor fiber quality and female buds from this variety are primarily used for recreational and medicinal purposes. The major differences between the two types of plants are the appearance, and the amount of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) secreted in a resinous mixture by epidermal hairs called glandular trichomes, although they can also be distinguished genetically. Oilseed and fiber varieties of Cannabis approved for industrial hemp production produce only minute amounts of this psychoactive drug, not enough for any physical or psychological effects. Typically, hemp contains below 0.3% THC, while cultivars of Cannabis grown for medicinal or recreational use can contain anywhere from 2% to over 20%.
CBD Benefits & Endocannabinoid System
Additional Information Additional Information On the Endocannabinoid System (Wikipedia)
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a biological system composed of endocannabinoids, which are endogenous lipid-based retrograde neurotransmitters that bind to cannabinoid receptors, and cannabinoid receptor proteins that are expressed throughout the mammalian central nervous system (including the brain) and peripheral nervous system. The endocannabinoid system is involved in regulating a variety of physiological and cognitive processes including fertility, pregnancy, during pre– and postnatal development, appetite, pain-sensation, mood, and memory, and in mediating the pharmacological effects of cannabis. The ECS is also involved in mediating some of the physiological and cognitive effects of voluntary physical exercise in humans and other animals, such as contributing to exercise-induced euphoria as well as modulating locomotor activity and motivational salience for rewards. In humans, the plasma concentration of certain endocannabinoids (i.e., anandamide) have been found to rise during physical activity; since endocannabinoids can effectively penetrate the blood–brain barrier, it has been suggested that anandamide, along with other euphoriant neurochemicals, contributes to the development of exercise-induced euphoria in humans, a state colloquially referred to as a runner’s high.
Two primary endocannabinoid receptors have been identified: CB1, first cloned in 1990; and CB2, cloned in 1993. CB1 receptors are found predominantly in the brain and nervous system, as well as in peripheral organs and tissues, and are the main molecular target of the endocannabinoid ligand (binding molecule), anandamide, as well as its mimetic phytocannabinoid, THC. One other main endocannabinoid is 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) which is active at both cannabinoid receptors, along with its own mimetic phytocannabinoid, CBD. 2-AG and CBD are involved in the regulation of appetite, immune system functions and pain management.
The endocannabinoid system, broadly speaking, includes:
- The endogenous arachidonate-based lipids, anandamide (N-arachidonoylethanolamide, AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG); these are known as “endocannabinoids” and are physiological ligands for the cannabinoid receptors. Endocannabinoids are all eicosanoids.
- The enzymes that synthesize and degrade the endocannabinoids, such as fatty acid amide hydrolase or monoacylglycerol lipase.
- The cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2, two G protein-coupled receptors that are located in the central and peripheral nervous systems.
The endocannabinoid system has been studied using genetic and pharmacological methods. These studies have revealed that cannabinoids act as neuromodulators for a variety of processes, including motor learning, appetite, and pain sensation, among other cognitive and physical processes. The localization of the CB1 receptor in the endocannabinoid system has a very large degree of overlap with the orexinergic projection system, which mediates many of the same functions, both physical and cognitive. Moreover, CB1 is colocalized on orexin projection neurons in the lateral hypothalamus and many output structures of the orexin system, where the CB1 and orexin receptor 1 (OX1) receptors physically and functionally join together to form the CB1–OX1 receptor heterodimer.
Cannabinoid receptors, located throughout the body, are part of the endocannabinoid system, which is involved in a variety of physiological processes including appetite, pain-sensation, mood, and memory.
Cannabinoid receptors are of a class of cell membrane receptors in the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. As is typical of G protein-coupled receptors, the cannabinoid receptors contain seven transmembrane spanning domains. Cannabinoid receptors are activated by three major groups of ligands: endocannabinoids, produced by the mammillary body; plant cannabinoids (such as cannabidiol, produced by the cannabis plant); and synthetic cannabinoids (such as HU-210). All of the endocannabinoids and phytocannabinoids (plant based cannabinoids) are lipophilic, such as fat soluble compounds.
There are currently two known subtypes of cannabinoid receptors, termed CB1 and CB2. The CB1 receptor is expressed mainly in the brain (central nervous system or “CNS”), but also in the lungs, liver and kidneys. The CB2 receptor is expressed mainly in the immune system and in hematopoietic cells. Mounting evidence suggests that there are novel cannabinoid receptors that is, non-CB1 and non-CB2, which are expressed in endothelial cells and in the CNS. In 2007, the binding of several cannabinoids to the G protein-coupled receptor GPR55 in the brain was described.
The protein sequences of CB1 and CB2 receptors are about 44% similar. When only the transmembrane regions of the receptors are considered, amino acid similarity between the two receptor subtypes is approximately 68%. In addition, minor variations in each receptor have been identified. Cannabinoids bind reversibly and stereo-selectively to the cannabinoid receptors. Subtype selective cannabinoids have been developed which theoretically may have advantages for treatment of certain diseases such as obesity.
It appears that cannabinoid receptors are unique to the phylum Chordata and, as such, they have a rather restricted phylogenetic distribution in the animal kingdom. However, enzymes involved in biosynthesis/inactivation of endocannabinoids and endocannabinoid signalling in general (involving targets other than CB1/2-type receptors) occur throughout the animal kingdom. Although the cannabinoid receptors are unique to Chordates, other organisms are still able to process the endocannabinoids through other techniques.
Functions of the Endocannabinoid System
Mice treated with tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) show suppression of long-term potentiation in the hippocampus, a process that is essential for the formation and storage of long-term memory. These results concur with anecdotal evidence suggesting that smoking cannabis impairs short-term memory. Consistent with this finding, mice without the CB1 receptor show enhanced memory and long-term potentiation indicating that the endocannabinoid system may play a pivotal role in the extinction of old memories. One study found that the high-dose treatment of rats with the synthetic cannabinoid HU-210 over several weeks resulted in stimulation of neural growth in the rats’ hippocampus region, a part of the limbic system playing a part in the formation of declarative and spatial memories, but did not investigate the effects on short-term or long-term memory. Taken together, these findings suggest that the effects of endocannabinoids on the various brain networks involved in learning and memory may vary.
Role in hippocampal neurogenesis
In the adult brain, the endocannabinoid system facilitates the neurogenesis of hippocampal granule cells. In the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus, multipotent neural progenitors (NP) give rise to daughter cells that, over the course of several weeks, mature into granule cells whose axons project to and synapse onto dendrites on the CA3 region. NPs in the hippocampus have been shown to possess fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and express CB1 and utilize 2-AG. Intriguingly, CB1 activation by endogenous or exogenous cannabinoids promote NP proliferation and differentiation; this activation is absent in CB1 knockouts and abolished in the presence of antagonist.
Induction of synaptic depression
The inhibitory effects of cannabinoid receptor stimulation on neurotransmitter release have caused this system to be connected to various forms of depressant plasticity. A recent study conducted with the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis found that the endurance of the depressant effects was mediated by two different signaling pathways based on the type of receptor activated. 2-AG was found to act on presynaptic CB1 receptors to mediate retrograde short-term depression (STD) following activation of L-type calcium currents, while anandamide was synthesized after mGluR5 activation and triggered autocrine signalling onto postsynapic TRPV1 receptors that induced long-term depression (LTD). Similar post-synaptic receptor dependencies were found in the striatum, but here both effects relied on presynaptic CB1 receptors. These findings provide the brain a direct mechanism to selectively inhibit neuronal excitability over variable time scales. By selectively internalizing different receptors, the brain may limit the production of specific endocannabinoids to favor a time scale in accordance with its needs.
Evidence for the role of the endocannabinoid system in food-seeking behavior comes from a variety of cannabinoid studies. Emerging data suggests that THC acts via CB1 receptors in the hypothalamic nuclei to directly increase appetite. It is thought that hypothalamic neurons tonically produce endocannabinoids that work to tightly regulate hunger. The amount of endocannabinoids produced is inversely correlated with the amount of leptin in the blood. For example, mice without leptin not only become massively obese but express abnormally high levels of hypothalamic endocannabinoids as a compensatory mechanism. Similarly, when these mice were treated with an endocannabinoid inverse agonists, such as rimonabant, food intake was reduced. When the CB1 receptor is knocked out in mice, these animals tend to be leaner and less hungry than wild-type mice. A related study examined the effect of THC on the hedonic (pleasure) value of food and found enhanced dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens and increased pleasure-related behavior after administration of a sucrose solution. A related study found that endocannabinoids affect taste perception in taste cells In taste cells, endocannabinoids were shown to selectively enhance the strength of neural signaling for sweet tastes, whereas leptin decreased the strength of this same response. While there is need for more research, these results suggest that cannabinoid activity in the hypothalamus and nucleus accumbens is related to appetitive, food-seeking behavior.
Energy balance and metabolism
The endocannabinoid system has been shown to have a homeostatic role by controlling several metabolic functions, such as energy storage and nutrient transport. It acts on peripheral tissues such as adipocytes, hepatocytes, the gastrointestinal tract, the skeletal muscles and the endocrine pancreas. It has also been implied in modulating insulin sensitivity. Through all of this, the endocannabinoid system may play a role in clinical conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and atherosclerosis, which may also give it a cardiovascular role.
While the secretion of glucocorticoids in response to stressful stimuli is an adaptive response necessary for an organism to respond appropriately to a stressor, persistent secretion may be harmful. The endocannabinoid system has been implicated in the habituation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis) to repeated exposure to restraint stress. Studies have demonstrated differential synthesis of anandamide and 2-AG during tonic stress. A decrease of anandamide was found along the axis that contributed to basal hypersecretion of corticosterone; in contrast, an increase of 2-AG was found in the amygdala after repeated stress, which was negatively correlated to magnitude of the corticosterone response. All effects were abolished by the CB1 antagonist AM251, supporting the conclusion that these effects were cannabinoid-receptor dependent. These findings show that anandamide and 2-AG divergently regulate the HPA axis response to stress: while habituation of the stress-induced HPA axis via 2-AG prevents excessive secretion of glucocorticoids to non-threatening stimuli, the increase of basal corticosterone secretion resulting from decreased anandamide allows for a facilitated response of the HPA axis to novel stimuli.
Exploration, social behavior, and anxiety
. These contrasting effects reveal the importance of the endocannabinoid system in regulating anxiety-dependent behavior. Results suggest that glutamatergic cannabinoid receptors are not only responsible for mediating aggression, but produce an anxiolytic-like function by inhibiting excessive arousal: excessive excitation produces anxiety that limited the mice from exploring both animate and inanimate objects. In contrast, GABAergic neurons appear to control an anxiogenic-like function by limiting inhibitory transmitter release. Taken together, these two sets of neurons appear to help regulate the organism’s overall sense of arousal during novel situations.
Evidence suggests that endocannabinoids may function as both neuromodulators and immunomodulators in the immune system. Here, they seem to serve an autoprotective role to ameliorate muscle spasms, inflammation, and other symptoms of multiple sclerosis and skeletal muscle spasms. Functionally, the activation of cannabinoid receptors has been demonstrated to play a role in the activation of GTPases in macrophages, neutrophils, and BM cells. These receptors have also been implicated in the proper migration of B cells into the marginal zone (MZ) and the regulation of healthy IgM levels. Some disorders seem to trigger an upregulation of cannabinoid receptors selectively in cells or tissues related to symptom relief and inhibition of disease progression, such as in that rodent neuropathic pain model, where receptors are increased in the spinal cord microglia, dorsal root ganglion, and thalamic neurons.
Historical records from ancient China and Greece suggest that preparations of Cannabis indica were commonly prescribed to ameliorate multiple sclerosis-like symptoms such as tremors and muscle pain. Modern research has confirmed these effects in a study on diseased mice, wherein both endogenous and exogenous agonists showed ameliorating effects on tremor and spasticity. It remains to be seen whether pharmaceutical preparations such as dronabinol have the same effects in humans. Due to increasing use of medical Cannabis and rising incidence of multiple sclerosis patients who self-medicate with the drug, there has been much interest in exploiting the endocannabinoid system in the cerebellum to provide a legal and effective relief. In mouse models of multiple sclerosis, there is a profound reduction and reorganization of CB1 receptors in the cerebellum. Serial sections of cerebellar tissue subjected to immunohistochemistry revealed that this aberrant expression occurred during the relapse phase but returned to normal during the remitting phase of the disease. Other studies suggest that CB1 agonists promote the survival of oligodendrocytes in vitro in the absence of growth and trophic factors; in addition, these agonist have been shown to promote mRNA expression of myelin lipid protein. (Kittler et al., 2000; Mollna-Holgado et al., 2002). Taken together, these studies point to the exciting possibility that cannabinoid treatment may not only be able to attenuate the symptoms of multiple sclerosis but also improve oligodendrocyte function (reviewed in Pertwee, 2001; Mollna-Holgado et al., 2002). 2-AG stimulates proliferation of a microglial cell line by a CB2 receptor dependent mechanism, and the number of microglial cells is increased in multiple sclerosis.
The developing embryo expresses cannabinoid receptors early in development that are responsive to anandamide secreted in the uterus. This signaling is important in regulating the timing of embryonic implantation and uterine receptivity. In mice, it has been shown that anandamide modulates the probability of implantation to the uterine wall. For example, in humans, the likelihood of miscarriage increases if uterine anandamide levels are too high or low. These results suggest that intake of exogenous cannabinoids (e.g. cannabis) can decrease the likelihood for pregnancy for women with high anandamide levels, and alternatively, it can increase the likelihood for pregnancy in women whose anandamide levels were too low.
Autonomic nervous system
Peripheral expression of cannabinoid receptors led researchers to investigate the role of cannabinoids in the autonomic nervous system. Research found that the CB1 receptor is expressed presynaptically by motor neurons that innervate visceral organs. Cannabinoid-mediated inhibition of electric potentials results in a reduction in noradrenaline release from sympathetic nervous system nerves. Other studies have found similar effects in endocannabinoid regulation of intestinal motility, including the innervation of smooth muscles associated with the digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems.
At the spinal cord, cannabinoids suppress noxious-stimulus-evoked responses of neurons in the dorsal horn, possibly by modulating descending noradrenaline input from the brainstem. As many of these fibers are primarily GABAergic, cannabinoid stimulation in the spinal column results in disinhibition that should increase noradrenaline release and attenuation of noxious-stimuli-processing in the periphery and dorsal root ganglion.
The endocannabinoid most researched in pain is palmitoylethanolamide. Palmitoylethanolamide is a fatty amine related to anandamide, but saturated and although initially it was thought that palmitoylethanolamide would bind to the CB1 and the CB2 receptor, later it was found that the most important receptors are the PPAR-alpha receptor, the TRPV receptor and the GPR55 receptor. Palmitoylethanolamide has been evaluated for its analgesic actions in a great variety of pain indications and found to be safe and effective. Basically these data are proof of concept for endocannabinoids and related fatty amines to be therapeutically useful analgesics; palmitoylethanolamide is available under the brand names Normast and PeaPure as nutraceuticals.
Anandamide and N-arachidonoyl dopamine (NADA) have been shown to act on temperature-sensing TRPV1 channels, which are involved in thermoregulation. TRPV1 is activated by the exogenous ligand capsaicin, the active component of chili peppers, which is structurally similar to endocannabinoids. NADA activates the TRPV1 channel with an EC50 of approximately of 50 nM.[clarify] The high potency makes it the putative endogenous TRPV1 agonist. Anandamide has also been found to activate TRPV1 on sensory neuron terminals, and subsequently cause vasodilation. TRPV1 may also be activated by methanandamide and arachidonyl-2′-chloroethylamide (ACEA).
Increased endocannabinoid signaling within the central nervous system promotes sleep-inducing effects. Intercerebroventricular administration of anandamide in rats has been shown to decrease wakefulness and increase slow-wave sleep and REM sleep. Administration of anandamide into the basal forebrain of rats has also been shown to increase levels of adenosine, which plays a role in promoting sleep and suppressing arousal. REM sleep deprivation in rats has been demonstrated to increase CB1 receptor expression in the central nervous system. Furthermore, anandamide levels possess a circadian rhythm in the rat, with levels being higher in the light phase of the day, which is when rats are usually asleep or less active, since they are nocturnal.
Anandamide is an endogenous cannabinoid neurotransmitter that binds to cannabinoid receptors. It has been shown that aerobic exercise causes an increase in plasma anandamide levels, where the magnitude of this increase is highest at moderate exercise intensity (i.e., exercising at ~70–80% maximum heart rate). Increases in plasma anandamide levels are associated with psychoactive effects because anandamide is able to cross the blood–brain barrier and act within the central nervous system. Thus, because anandamide is a euphoriant and aerobic exercise is associated with euphoric effects, it has been proposed that anandamide partly mediates the short-term mood-lifting effects of exercise (e.g., the euphoria of a runner’s high) via exercise-induced increases in its synthesis.
In mice it was demonstrated that certain features of a runner’s high depend on cannabinoid receptors. Pharmacological or genetic disruption of cannabinoid signaling via cannabinoid receptors prevents the analgesic and anxiety-reducing effects of running.
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